Bead setting is a generic term for setting a stone directly into metal using gravers, also called burins, which are essentially tiny chisels. A hole is drilled directly into the metal surface, and then a ball burr is used to make a concave depression just the size of the stone. Some setters will set the stone into that concave depression, and some will use a hart burr to cut a bearing around the edge. Then the stone is inserted into that space, and the gravers or burins are used to lift and push a tiny bit of the metal into and over the edge of the stone. Then a beading tool, which is simply a steel shaft with a concave dimple cut into the tip, is pushed onto the bit of metal, rounding and smoothing it, pushing it firmly onto the stone, and creating a "bead". That is the essential method, but there are many types of setting that use the technique. When many stones are set in this fashion very closely together, covering a surface, that is called "pavé"—from the French for paved or cobblestoned. When a long line is engraved into the metal going up to each of the beads, that is "star set", because of the look. The other common usage is called "bead and bright", "grain setting" or "threading" in Europe, and other names at times. This is when, after the stone is set as described above, the background metal around the stone is cut away, usually in geometric shapes. In the end what is left is the stone with four beads in a lowered box shape with an edge around it. Often it is a row of stones, so it will be in a long shape with a raised edge and a row of stones and beads down the center. This type of setting is still used often, but it was very common in the early to middle 20th century.